by Jorge L. Duarte
Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands, 25 May 2010
Atypical experimental results seem to suggest that an ingenious assembly of permanent magnets can produce mechanical energy without resorting to conventional sources. Here we try to give a first theoretical basis to this discovery.
An embodiment of Mr. Muammer Yildiz’s invention, as partially described in the international patent WO 2009/019001, was shown at Delft University of Technology on April 20, 2010. A video recording on Youtube is also available. (http://tinyurl.com/b89ate2).
The Yildiz engine has some very special characteristics. The machine’s stator consists of 12 segments, 7 of which were opened to be inspected by the public after the machine had worked for about half an hour and had been stopped. It is important to note that the public, not the inventor, had asked to stop it in order to inspect the internal parts.
All the aforesaid segments are made of aluminum or plastic, where pieces of permanent magnets of different shapes have been inserted. The elements of some of the remaining 5 segments are not yet patent protected, and the decision whether to patent them or not is left to the decision of a prospective investor.
After removing the seven segments from the stator it was possible to see and touch the outside of the stator itself inside the machine. The rotor implant is made of aluminum, and even there small magnets are fixed in holes. It should be noted that with the machine in operation this mechanical cylinder rotates at about 2,000 rpm very close to the strong stator magnets without apparent heat dissipation. This is strange, because one would expect the induction and circulation of significant parasitic currents in aluminum. Is not it nice that all the segments and the rotor did not burn at the opening of the car? Only a slight increase in temperature near the mechanical bearings was detectable. In fact, to turn the metal cylinder at that speed, in the vicinity of stationary magnets, a considerable amount of energy would be required. If I had to hide a battery somewhere in the remaining closed parts, from an energy point of view I’d rather build the rotor in some other material than metal. A fan was connected to the end of the rotor. Overall, we saw a fan running outside the machine, along with a parasitic current damper inside. This truly unique coupling requires a lot of energy to keep the cylinder rotating! Furthermore, it should be noted that the remaining closed segments in the stator are not symmetrically arranged in the rotor. If there is a battery hidden in these parts, it would be imperative to use semiconductor switches in highly efficient power electronics in order to produce pulsating currents through windings (again, heat dissipation, inconvenient in hidden electronic circuits).
The pulsating currents are a necessary condition to produce a pulsating magnetic field that would cross the space between the stator and the rotor, thus allowing the rotor to continue its rotation. In producing the torque, a pulsating magnetic field would also induce strong parasitic currents in the rotor, on top of the “damper” effect described above, and so on … For an experienced engineer the installation of all these sophisticated circuits would not have no sense. It is true that the internal parts of the rotor have not been inspected, but whatever they contain does not invalidate the point just mentioned. This is because the external assembly of the rotor is made of aluminum covered with magnets. The magnets that rotate in the outer part should cause parasitic currents on the aluminum parts of the stator, and the stationary magnets on the stator should cause parasitic currents on the rotor system. Both sides, stator and rotor, were barely hot when the car was opened.
On the whole, although the container of the invention has not yet been completely opened and examined, it seems clear that the operating principle goes beyond a conventional battery-based technology to provide the energy needed to run the engine.
Let us examine the possibility that the mechanical energy supplied has been taken from the magnetizing field accumulated by the permanent magnets. Considering a total weight of 24 kg of all neodymium magnets operating in the engine – that is, 50% of the weight of the latter – the maximum stored magnetic energy is 0.25 Watt hours (Wh), or 15 Watt-minutes (Wmin ).
The mechanical energy that keeps the air flow in the tube placed in front of the propeller had already been measured at 10 W. Therefore, if the engine runs for more than two minutes it is clear that mechanical energy has not been provided from the magnetic one stored in the magnets. Just like it happened during the experiment.
A possible explanation of how the Yildiz engine works could be provided by classical physics based on the famous equation E = mc2. We could argue that energy is continually supplied by re-energizing the spin of the elementary magnets through the flow of photons from the gravitational field. In other words, the self-sustaining vibrations of the magnets in the motor, in some way, would resonate with gravitational fields.
To confirm this possibility, an extremely accurate and sensitive experiment should demonstrate without doubt that the weight of the motor decreases during operation, and that the weight does not change when the engine is at rest. But if the weight was reduced by 1.0 g during operation, this would imply the conversion of about 25,000 MWh, which is equivalent to supplying 2 kW of electricity to over 1,200 homes for a year in a row!
On the contrary, if the weight of the engine did not change during the experiment, then there will be another interesting, possible candidate among the sources of energy, however, provided by quantum physics.
Quantum theory states that all fields – especially electromagnetic fields – have fluctuations. In other words, at any given moment their real value varies randomly around a constant mean value. Even a perfect vacuum at the temperature of absolute zero has floating fields known as “vacuum fluctuations,” or “zero point fluctuations,” of which the average energy at each point in space corresponds to half the energy of a photon.
As a consequence of quantization, emptiness tacitly has an extremely complex structure. All the energetic properties that a particle can have are present in every point in space, like a chaotic “sea of activity”. On average, the overlap of all these properties cancels each other, and the vacuum is, as a result, “empty”. However, the random energy of the vacuum can be moved according to coherent schemes, with observable and directly measurable results. Casimir’s forces are an example in which the zero-point fluctuations interact with parallel metallic surfaces, separated by distances of the magnitude of the micron, and provide work.
In reality, every physical object interacts with the chaotic vacuum fields and produces some coherent interaction. In this case we could speculate that, thanks to the ingenious arrangement of the vibrating and stationary permanent magnets, the Yildiz engine could have the property of transforming the randomness of quantum fluctuations into useful energy, thus allowing the extraction of energy from the surrounding space, without necessity of further sources. A fundamental assumption is that from the vacuum fluctuations we can extract enough energy to maintain a strong rotating magnetic field (generally spiral) around the rotor.The amount of energy emptiness is beyond imagination, but physicists try to give it an idea by underlining that the energy contained in a single cubic meter of space would be enough to bring all the world’s oceans to a boil.
Obviously further experiments are needed to decide which theory is the most suitable to explain and improve the Yildiz engine. Nevertheless, do not you think that although the apparatus has not been completely disassembled and analyzed, does the demonstration done at Delft really merit attention?
The assembly of the Yildiz engine consists essentially of permanent magnets, plastics and aluminum. Nevertheless, the experiment confirms that, without any connection to any conventional source of energy (such as batteries, radioactivity, etc.) the motor is able to produce a continuous torque on a rotary axis and can thus be used as a real propeller.
In this short article a simple qualitative model is proposed, which tries to combine traditional theories in order to describe the behavior of the device.
In traditional physics, space is not considered empty at all. (1) It is hypothesized that there are everywhere massless particles (such as photons), in a very wide distribution of wave frequencies. These particles provide a form of chaotically distributed energy, which is supposed to be present everywhere in the universe as a “black sea in boiling”. The origin of the chaotic spatial energy is often referred to as “zero point fluctuations” (Zero-Point Fluctuations, ZPF) or vacuum fluctuations.
Another interesting possibility foreseen by quantum physics is the presence of magnetic monopolies (ie, isolated magnetic poles, as it could be a North pole in the absence of a South pole). (2)
In reality, there has never been a convincing explanation as to why there should not be isolated magnetic poles. Although indirect experimental tests have already been declared, (3) research to date to prove the existence of particles containing isolated poles has been fruitless.
There is also a particular communication, available in literature, dating back over thirty years ago, based on the experimental measurement of the magnetic fields surrounding the ends of the permanent magnets. (4)
Contrary to what might be expected, there were two types of helical magnetic fields under each pole. The spatial distribution of the field detected as a result of magnetic induction is similar to double vortex structures.
This study has not continued since, although there are sufficient experimental results in Johnson et al. which could easily be reproduced.
The measured double vortex could be seen as a result of electromagnetic singularities, indirectly equivalent to magnetic monopolies separated in space.
Regarding the operating principle of the Yildiz engine, a fundamental hypothesis of the model proposed in this article is that the ingenious assembly of the magnets inside the device creates an environment able to favor the formation of separate helical magnetic vortices, as in Johnson et al. It is also hypothesized that a type of vortex is predominant, and that it produces singularities that virtually behave like monopolies in the gap between the rotor and the stator.
Because of the resulting helical field lines, strange curled paths can be detected using a magnetic observation card positioned in front of the rotor’s transverse faces.
Assuming that the rotor covered with permanent magnets is immersed in magnetic field lines that have helical circuits, there will be a mechanical torque on the longitudinal axis (due to the circular component of the field lines), which will cause the rotor to rotate. Consequently, as long as the magnetic field in the shape of a vortex is maintained (thanks to some energy source), it is possible to derive mechanical energy from the rotating axis.
The mechanism for maintaining a helical field between the rotor and the stator is a direct consequence of the oscillation of the particles in the permanent magnets. Inside the magnetic materials the charged particles (electrons) oscillate in sync without colliding. This process is maintained thanks to the energy that the electrons receive from the photons in space and which emit photons back into the latter, (5) thus creating the magnetic field (a coherent pattern of quantum fluctuations) around the magnets.It is normally an energy exchange process without any average net energy transfer. However, when mechanical energy is taken from the rotating axis, it is hypothesized that, for a given amount of output power, the ingenious structure of magnets allows to obtain energy from the quantum fluctuations through the oscillation of the internal particles, sufficient to maintain the helical shape of the magnetic field around the rotor.
In other words, space is the main source of energy in the engine of Yildiz, since quantum fluctuations are what maintains the vortices of the magnetic field, despite the transfer of energy through the rotating rotor. Since the rotor rotates immersed in a helical magnetic field, there is no voltaic induction in the aluminum parts, therefore parasitic currents are not induced. This would explain why neither heat nor damping torque is generated.
A first attempt was made here to explain the behavior of Yildiz’s engine in the light of existing, yet controversial, theories. This model is still far from satisfactory, since sufficient and detailed measurements have not yet been made to confirm the hypotheses. However, the above opens the way for a confirmation or denial of the model on the basis of future experiments.
1. Feynman, R.P., Quantum Electrodynamics, Princeton University Press, 2006
2. Dirac, P.A.M., “Quantized singularities in the electromagnetic field“, Proc. R. Soc. London A 1931; 133:60-72
3. Fang, Z. et al., “The anomalous Hall effect and magnetic monopoles in momentum space“, Science 2003; 302(5642):92-95
4. Johnson, H.R., S.M. Davis e G.H. Beyer, “Visualizing magnetic fields“, in The Secret World of Magnets, Cheniere Press, 2006, pp. 35-41
5. Puthoff, H.E., “Ground state of hydrogen as a zero-point-fluctuation-determined state“, Phys. Rev. D 1987; 35(10)